The history of Nossa Senhora de Assuncao Fort dates back to 1649, when it was built by the Dutch under the direction of Captain Matias Beck as Forte Schoonemborch. Just five years later in 1654, the fort was captured by the Portuguese and renamed after the patron saint of Fortaleza. When Fortaleza was officially founded in 1726, it was named after the fortress.
Since 1942, Nossa Senhora de Assuncao Fort has been a Brazilian army headquarters, but parts of the fort remain open to the public. Two such areas include a museum dedicated to General Antonio de Sampaio, a local Ceara war hero from the nineteenth century War of Paraguay, as well as the cell where the mother of Jose de Alencar, a famous Brazilian novelist from Ceara, was jailed.